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Phonics involves connecting the SOUNDS of spoken English to the WRITTEN representation (letters or groups of letters). These sounds are blended to construct words.

All schools have a statutory obligation to teach phonics.

Phonics is taught daily in KS1 and is continued into KS2, if necessary.

Children take a phonics screening check at the end of Y1.

Teaching phonics is systematic and follows a logical sequence of learning. Children progress through phonic phases and are expected to apply what they learn in phonics lessons to their reading and writing.

Why do we teach phonics?

85% of words are phonetically decodable so it is important that our children are able to understand the rules and application of phonics in order to read and write effectively.

Children need to be able to:

BLEND: Read words by breaking them down into units of sound.

SEGMENT: Spellwords by putting units of sound together in the correct sequence.

How do we teach phonics?

At Peasmarsh we use Letters and Sounds to teach phonics. This is a structured programme that allows children to reach the end of Y2 following the required trajectory (timescales).

Phonics is taught daily for about 20 minutes. The children revisit what they have already learnt and are then taught a new sound. They will have activities involving reading and spelling words and then apply it. The activities are fun and engaging so that the children learn by 'doing'. Phonics teaching can take place anywhere and will often be outside when possible. 

What should my child be learning?

Phase 2: (YR Autumn Term) Letters and their sounds are introduced one at a time. A set of letters is taught each week, in the following sequence:

Set 1: s a t p    Set 2: i n m d    Set 3: g o c k   Set 4: ck e u r    Set 5: h b f  ff  l  ll ss

Phase 3: (YR Spring --> Summer Term) 25 new graphemes are introduced (one at a time).

Set 6: j v w x        Set 7: y z zz qu       Consonant digraphs: ch   sh   th  ng

Vowel digraphs: ai   ee  igh  oa  oo  ar  or  ur  ow  oi  ear  air  ure  er

Phase 4 (YR Summer Term) No new graphemes are introduced. The main aim of this phase is to consolidate the children's knowledge and to help them learn to read and spell words which have adjacent consonants, such as trap, string and milk.

Phase 5 (Y1) Children will learn more graphemes and phonemes (eg. ai /ay) and alternative pronunciations for graphemes will also be introduced (e.g. ea in tea, head and break).

Phase 6 (Y2) At this stage children should be able to spell words phonemically although not always correctly. The main aim is for children to become more fluent readers and more accurate spellers. They will recognise phonics irregularities and spell more complex words.

Tricky Words

Children will also learn how to read and spell common words. Children look at strategies to find patterns within the words and ways to help them remember tricky spellings.


Letters and Sounds

We use a variety of reading schemes alongside the teaching of phonics, These include: Sunshine Starters, Oxford ReadingTree, Big Cat and Rigby Star. We encourage children to read a wide variety of books at school and at home.

Sound Mats

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phase-2-mat1phase 3phase 5




How can parents help?

Parents can practise the sound cards with their children and begin to put words together. The following links also provide some fun activities that will link into the learning at school.









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